From 1702 to 1714 A.D., Anne Stuart ruled as queen of Great Britain and Ireland. She was a divisive monarch because many people thought she was unworthy of the crown. Additionally, she experienced personal and medical problems, which forced the ministers in her court to make practically all of the judgments. James II, the Duke of York, and his wife Anne Hyde had a daughter named Anne. Prince George of Denmark and Anne became a royal couple. He was emotionally inaccessible and frequently inebriated. The marriage of Anne was never happy, and her husband never paid attention to her needs. When King Charles II of Great Britain passed away in 1686, Anne’s father, King James II, inherited the throne. The kingdom passed to Mary, Anne’s elder sister, and her husband, Prince William of Orange, after James’s passing. After they passed away, Anne ascended to the monarch and shared power with her husband, George, who had no desire to participate in politics or to run the realm. Since the outset of her rule, Anne had a reputation as a weak queen. People attacked her for being mentally and physically unfit. Anne’s childhood friend Sarah Churchill made repeated attempts to control her. August 1st, 1714, saw Anne’s passing. Despite being pregnant 17 times, she was unable to produce a suitable heir to the British crown. She gave birth to two children; William was the only one to survive. But he, too, passed away at the age of 11.
Early Years of Anne, Queen of Great Britain
At the ‘St. James Palace’ in London, Anne was born on February 6, 1665. She was the second of Duke James II’s daughters and the fourth child overall. Charles II, her uncle, ruled over Scotland, England, and Ireland. Except for her older sister Mary, all of her siblings passed away before they were adults.
Since the day of her birth, Anne had suffered from various illnesses. She carried her ailment into maturity. She developed an eye infection and frequently experienced wet eyes. She was then transported to receive medical attention at the home of her French paternal grandmother.
After the death of Anne’s grandmother in 1669, she moved home with her aunt. The following year, her aunt passed away, and Anne went back to England. She quickly lost her mother.
The royal families of England have a legend that Anne and her sister Mary did not reside with their father. They resided in Richmond, England, a little distance away. According to their uncle King Charles II’s instructions, both sisters were brought up as Protestants. She first met Sarah Jennings in 1671, and they stayed friends for the rest of her life.
By that time, James II, Duke of York, had become a Roman Catholic. There was a small outcry among the royal family as a result. He wed Mary of Modena, a Catholic princess who was just six and a half years older than Anne. King Charles never had any legally recognized offspring. The duke of York, his younger brother, came next in line of succession, then his daughters Mary and Anne.
Marriage of Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Around 1680 A.D., Anne had a second cousin named George of Hanover who frequently visited London and was assumed to be her future spouse. The marriage, however, never happened. Mary, Anne’s older sister, had previously wed William of Orange, her first cousin. Anne was ill with smallpox at the time of her sister’s wedding and was unable to attend.
Prince George of Denmark was chosen as the ideal suitor for Anne by King Charles after a thorough search. The pair wed in 1683, and as a gift for their London home, the “Cockpit” in the “Palace of Whitehall” was given to them.
Sarah Churchill, a childhood friend, was thereafter designated as “Lady of the Bedchamber.” Soon after getting married, Anne became pregnant, however the pregnancy resulted in a miscarriage. Anne later gave birth to two daughters, Marry Sophia and Anne, but both of the girls passed away soon after.
Wonderful Revolution of Anne, Queen of Great Britain
When James II, the father of Anne, and Anne’s mother converted to Roman Catholicism, the royal family was embroiled in scandal. But Catholicism was avoided, and Anne and Mary were brought up as Protestants.
In 1686, King Charles perished. James II, Anne’s father, who was the next in line to become king, was soon crowned as such. But the main impediment to him being a capable monarch was his allegiance to the Roman Catholic faith. In addition, he favored building a court devoid of parliamentary oversight.
The parliament took exception by such measures, and soon there were efforts to depose James. The ‘Glorious Revolution’ of 1688 resulted from this, and it ranks among the most important moments in English history.
The parliament asked Mary and her husband, William of Orange, to depose her father. Invading England in 1688, William deposed James. Anne wanted to support her father and was aware of these acts beforehand. Sarah Churchill, a close friend of Anne’s, intervened to stop her because she thought that in the long run, Anne would benefit more from not aiding her father.
When King James learned of Sarah’s plans, he put her in prison. The nighttime escape of Sarah and Anne damaged King James’s feelings. Now that both of his daughters were opposed to him, he escaped to France.
For a while, the thrones of England, Scotland, and Ireland were vacant. The parliament then proclaimed William of Orange and Mary to be the three countries’ monarchs. The next person in line was Anne.
Victory in the Throne
When Mary and William controlled the kingdoms, Mary and Anne never got along very well. By the year 1702, Anne succeeded to the kingdom after the deaths of Mary and William. As a result, Anne became England’s first married monarch. James, her half-brother who was a Roman Catholic and exiled to France, came next in line.
It was feeble from the start of Anne’s rule. There were rumors that Anne made poor decisions and was particularly susceptible to manipulation. Her childhood friend Sarah Churchill was reputed to be her most skilled con artist. Anne had a lot of faith in her.
In addition to becoming “Lady of the Bedchamber,” Sarah was also appointed “Keeper of the Privy Purse” and “Mistress of the Robes.” Sarah was very dear to Anne, and she frequently showered her with lavish presents. The pricey “Blenheim Estate” was also given to Sarah and her husband. John, Sarah’s husband, received it mostly as a thank-you for his valorous actions on the battlefield during the War of Spanish Succession.
The friendship between Sarah and Anne was well-known, but it came to an end when Anne saw how she was being used. Sarah was replaced by one of Anne’s close cousins after petty disagreements.
There were several political factors at play in their breakup, as well. During Anne’s rule, the War of Spanish Succession, sometimes referred to as the Whig War, reached its height. Anne was a Tory, and Sarah was a Whig. It became clear that the queen had prioritized her abilities over her friendship with Sarah when Anne replaced Sarah with another Tory, her cousin Abigail Masham.
Regarding the Tories’ war plans, Anne disagreed. The Whigs, the duke of Marlborough, and Anne all supported sending English troops on campaigns in continental Europe. At the height of the War of Spanish Succession in 1710, the Whigs gained strength. After that, Anne kicked a few of them out of her office. As a result, Sarah painted Anne in a very negative light in her autobiography.
Anne also prepared the ground for the 1707 “Act of Union,” which united Scotland and England into one country known as “Great Britain.”
Individual Life and Death
All of Anne’s life, she battled health issues. She continued to experience this in her latter years. Despite having given birth 17 times in her lifetime, she was unable to produce a legitimate heir to the kingdom. She had a lot of miscarriages because of her ongoing health issues.
George of Denmark, her spouse, was passionately loved by her. He was an alcoholic, yet she almost ever voiced an objection. But until her passing, her marital life remained unhappy and unfulfilling.
Her health deteriorated and she lost her ability to walk in the middle of 1713. On July 30, 1714, she suffered a stroke, and she passed away on August 1 of that same year.
Legacy of Anne, Queen of Great Britain
Contrary to what many people believe, Anne was a strong ruler, according to a number of contemporary historians. The armed forces thrived while she was in power. The onerous task of uniting Scotland and England was also accomplished during her rule.
She was a misunderstood and undervalued monarch of Great Britain, according to some historians.
Estimated Net Worth of Anne, Queen of Great Britain
The estimated net worth of Anne, Queen of Great Britain is around $1 million.