Edward, the Black Prince, was the eldest son of King Edward III and Queen Philippa. He was also known as Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, Duke of Cornwall, and Earl of Chester. He was created Earl of Chester before his third birthday, Duke of Cornwall at the age of seven, and Prince of Wales at the age of thirteen, all at the Royal Palace in Oxfordshire. Later, his father knighted him, making him the first Knight of the Garter. He assisted his father in winning the Battle of Crecy when he was 16 years old, and the victory was so resounding that the jubilant king was confident that his firstborn would only increase his and the kingdom’s reputations. When he won the Battle of Poitiers against King John II, then King of France, he made his father even more proud. He kidnapped the king, his youngest son, and a large number of nobles. From then on, he was relentless in his pursuit of his father’s aim of entirely conquering France, which resulted in the wars of Winchelsea, Aquitaine, and Najera. It is thought that he contracted an illness while attempting to reinstall Don Pedro as King of Castille, which eventually led to his death.
Childhood and Adolescence
As the eldest son of King Edward III and Queen Philippa, Edward was born on June 15, 1330 at the Royal Palace of Woodstock in Oxfordshire.
In 1333, he was made Earl of Chester, and in 1337, he was made Duke of Cornwall. When his father was abroad at war for the next few years, he became the kingdom’s guardian. In 1343, he was made Prince of Wales.
Years Later of Edward, the Black Prince
In 1345, King Edward III knighted Edward at La Hogue. The following year, Edward actively supported his father at the Battle of Crecy, earning the moniker ‘The Black Prince’ because to his black armor.
At the Battle of Crecy, Edward III’s army of English, Welsh, and allied troops beat Philip VI’s united army of French, Genoese, and Majorcan warriors.
Despite being outmanned, Edward III prevailed decisively thanks to the advent of weaponry like the longbow and cannons. The army required supplies and reinforcements in order to continue their campaigns in France.
Edward III required a port where his troops could be resupplied, and the English Channel port of Calais was the ideal location. The town, as well as the fortress within it, had a double moat and strong and high walls. The town could be an ideal location for the king’s needs, with the extra benefit of being seaworthy.
In September 1346, Edward III’s troops arrived in Calais. For the next two months, neither side was able to cut off the other’s supply, so nothing was accomplished. They were given to Edward III by England and Flanders, and to Philip VI of France by loyal French sailors.
Various attempts were attempted from November to February, but the walls could not be breached, and Edward III ordered siege. Both sides got reinforcements, but the Americans were finally able to stop the French from receiving more supplies.
The city’s food and fresh water supplies had run out by August, so residents burned fires to indicate their surrender. The citizens gave Edward III the keys to the city gates and left with some provisions.
The Battle of Winchelsea, fought in 1350, was won by an English fleet of 50 ships led by Edward III and accompanied by the Black Prince, over a Castillian fleet of 40 ships led by Don Carlos de la Cerda.
By 1355, Edward the Black Prince was the King’s Lieutenant for Gascony and the commander of the army invading Southeastern France under the banner of Aquitaine. They made some crucial allies and devastated France’s economy during this massive raid. Edward III gained additional land, resources, and armies as a result of his successful conquest of Aquitaine.
The Battle of Poitiers was fought between the Black Prince and John II, King of France, in September 1356. The English won only because to their battle-acumen, and the French King and his youngest son were taken prisoner.
In 1360, the Black Prince and the prisoner of war, John II, signed the Treaty of Bretigny. The contract granted the former complete power over several new regions, with no interference from the French monarch.
The second sentence included a ransom of three million gold crowns, and John II was released after paying one million. But, as a surety for the rest of the ransom, John delivered the Black Prince many hostages, including his own two sons.
The Anglo-Gascon army and the Franco-Castilian army clashed in the Battle of Najera in April 1367. The Black Prince led the English, who had friends in John of Gaunt and Peter of Castile.
When Peter was assassinated, the war became a lost cause for the Black Prince, and the money Edward had invested in the war effort became useless. As a result, the Black Prince was forced to declare bankruptcy.
Achievements of Edward, the Black Prince
The roles he played in the battles of Crecy and Poitiers stood out among all of the Black Prince’s accomplishments. At the Battle of Crecy, Edward III’s army of English, Welsh, and ally soldiers beat Philip VI’s united army of French, Genoese, and Majorcan warriors. He battled and defeated King John II of France at the Battle of Poitiers.
Personal History and Legacy
In 1361, Edward, the Black Prince, married Joan, the Countess of Kent, and the couple produced two sons, Edward and Richard. He also became the stepfather of Thomas and John Holland, Joan’s children from a previous marriage.
Sir Roger Clarendon with Edith de Willesford was one of his illegitimate children, as were three other sons named Edward, Sir John Sounder, and Sir Charles FitzEdward.
On June 8, 1376, Edward, the Black Prince, died in Westminster Palace. His death was the result of an illness he got while on a mission to restore Don Pedro the Cruel to the kingdom of Castille in 1366.
Estimated Net Worth
Estimated net worth of Edward, the Black Prince is unknown.