Jalil Mammadguluzadeh was a well-known Azerbaijani satirist and writer. He was born in what is now Azerbaijan to Iranian parents, and he spent much of his career in Georgia. He worked as a teacher in rural schools for many years before becoming a writer. He even studied law at one point in his life. He bought a publishing firm with his colleagues and became the editor of the satire magazine ‘Molla Nasraddin.’ He was also the author of a number of short stories, essays, novels, and plays. He has had a significant impact on the satirical style in Azerbaijani and Iranian literature as a result of his work. He was an activist in his own country, campaigning for the purification of the Azeri language in addition to his work as a writer. Azeri still persists as a literary language, thanks in part to his efforts. He was also a bit of a polarizing figure. The political issues in ‘Molla Nasraddin’ led to the publication of the magazine being outlawed in many places before it was finally shut down. Despite his lack of recognition in Western countries, he has a significant effect in Azerbaijan, Turkey, Iran, Russia, and the Caucasus area. He mostly wrote in Azeri, although he could also communicate in Russian and Persian.
Childhood and Adolescence
Jalil Mammadguluzadeh was born on February 22, 1866, in Nakchivan, present-day Azerbaijan. His parents were Iranian, although he is of Azeri descent. Throughout his childhood, Mammadguluzadeh was educated in religious schools. He enrolled in a Nakchivan city school when he was 13 years old. He learnt Russian while he was there.
He came to Gori, Georgia, in 1886 to study at the Transcaucasia Teachers’ Seminary. This provided him with experience as a teacher and allowed him to meet other intelligent people.
He began teaching in Erivan province after graduating from Transcaucasia Seminary in 1887. He taught at a variety of rural schools around the region. He relocated to Erivan Province’s capital in 1901. He aspired to be a lawyer, so he stayed for two years to study law.
He dropped out of law school in 1903 and relocated to Tbilisi to care for his dying wife. Though he had previously written a few short pieces, it was in Tibilisi that he truly launched his writing career.
Career of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh
He wrote the short story “The Postbox” in 1903. After reading this story, writer Muhammad agha Shakhtakhtinski pushed Mammadguluzadeh to publish it in the Azeri newspaper ‘Sharqi-Rus.’ ‘Sharqi-Rus’ published the ‘Postbox’ in 1904. He subsequently went on to work as a columnist for ‘Sharqi-Rus,’ where he was able to publish his stories and get experience in publishing and journalism.
Mammadguluzadeh met several other literati during his tenure at ‘Sharqi-Rus.’ With 1905, he assisted in the purchase of the Geyrat Publishing House with the support of certain friends and colleagues.
He started the literary and satirical magazine ‘Molla Nasraddin’ a year later, in 1906. The magazine featured literature, poetry, and cartoons that addressed current events.
‘Molla Nasraddin’ was a divisive figure in the Tsarist government at the time, and she had to relocate her office multiple times. Baku, which is now the capital of Azerbaijan, was the magazine’s final home.
He was the editor of this publication until 1931, when it ceased publication. During this time, he wrote a slew of new short stories, essays, and dramas.
Major Projects of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh
From 1906 to 1931, he was the editor of the periodical ‘Molla Nasraddin.’ Each weekly print run of the journal had a circulation of roughly 2,500 copies.
Personal History and Legacy
Jalil Mammadguluzadeh had three marriages. His first two wives died before he did. Nazli Kangarli, his first wife, died in 1903, shortly after he transported her to Tbilisi for treatment. Hamida Javanshir, a female civil rights activist and philanthropist, was his final wife in 1907. Midhat and Anvar were his two children with Javanshir.
On January 4th, 1932, he died in Baku of natural causes. His wife and two children survived him.
He is noted for his lasting effect on the satirist style through his work in ‘Molla Nasraddin.’ He also advocated for education and women’s rights.
Because of his fight against foreign vocabulary in the language, the Azeri language was strengthened.
Some argue that he was an atheist rather than a Muslim, stating that he was an atheist. Though he was a frequent critic of religion and had been threatened by radicals, these charges have not been proved.
‘Molla Nasraddin’ was called after a caustic and hilarious story writer from the 13th century. Because of the magazine’s satirical tone, the name is appropriate. Nasraddism is an Azeri word that loosely translates to “to tell it how it is.” It was named after his magazine. The term derives from the publication’s capacity to depict political realities.
Estimated Net Worth
Jalil is one of the wealthiest novelists and one of the most well-known. Jalil Mammadguluzadeh’s net worth is estimated to be $1 million, according to Wikipedia, Forbes, and Business Insider.