Zulfikar Ali Bhutto

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Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, the founder of the Pakistan People’s Party, was a notable politician who oversaw significant reforms and changes in Pakistan’s governance, transforming it from a presidential to a parliamentary system. The country witnessed the promulgation of Pakistan’s third constitution in 1973 during his democratic presidency. Furthermore, despite various faults such as limited financial resources and intense western resistance, Bhutto headed Pakistan’s nuclear weapons development and is thus considered as the Father of Pakistan’s Nuclear Weapons Program. He was the country’s greatest civilian leader, controlling practically the entire decade of the 1970s, thanks to his powerful personality combined with his combative character and incredible tenacity. He was born into a political family and quickly rose to prominence as a leader. From 1971 to 1973, he served as the country’s 4th President, and from 1973 to 1977, he served as the country’s 9th Prime Minister. He remains one of the country’s most divisive leaders to this day. We have included thorough information about Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s childhood, life, profile, and political pursuits in the following paragraphs. Continue reading.

Childhood and Adolescence

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto was born in Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan, to Sir Shah Nawaz Bhutto and Khursheed Begum nee Lakhi Bai. His father was the old Junagadh estate’s prime minister.

In Bombay, he attended Cathedral and John Connon School (present day Mumbai). This young guy was up in a prominent political household, so politics was in his blood. As a result, he became a student activist and made significant contributions to the social movement and the nationalistic league while still in school.

In 1947, he enrolled at the University of Southern California to pursue a degree in political science. He was transferred to the University of California, Berkeley, two years later, where he earned his bachelor’s degree.
He traveled to the United Kingdom in 1950 to study law at Christ Church. By 1953, he had earned an LLB in Law, an LLM in Law, and a Master of Science in Political Science.

He began his career as a lecturer at the Sindh Muslim College. He took over the management of his family’s estate and commercial interests after his father died.

Career in Politics

He was the youngest member of Pakistan’s United Nations delegation in 1957. He led Pakistan’s delegation to the first United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea the following year.
Field Marshal Ayub Khan selected him as a cabinet minister in the Ministry of Water and Power in 1958, which was a watershed moment in his political career.

He was appointed to the Ministry of Commerce, Communications, and Industry in 1960.
He was chosen as the country’s Foreign Minister in 1963. In this role, he strove to strengthen connections with China while also attempting to gain greater independence from western influence. He rose to national notoriety and popularity because to his strong attitude and manner.

In the aftermath of the 1965 Indo-Pak conflict, he was harshly critical of the Tashkent agreement between Pakistan President Ayub Khan and Indian Prime Minister Lal Bhahadur Shastri. Both countries agreed to swap prisoners of war and return their respective forces to pre-war lines as part of the accord. In June 1966, Bhutto resigned from the cabinet in protest of the arrangement.

Along with Dr. Mubashir Hassan, J.A. Rahim, and Basit Jehangir Sheikh, he founded Pakistan People’s Party in 1967. The party joined the pro-democracy movement and called for Ayub Khan’s resignation, calling his rule a tyranny.

In 1970, elections were held following the resignation of Ayub Khan. Though the PPP earned a lot of votes in West Pakistan, it wasn’t enough because Sheikh Mujib’s Awami League received twice as many votes in East Pakistan.
Bhutto refused to accept an Awami League government and requested that Sheikh Mujib join a coalition with the Pakistan People’s Party (PPP). Sheikh Mujib turned down the offer and declared independence. As a result, tremendous violence and civil war erupted. Bangladesh emerged as an independent country as a result of the conflict.

President Yahya Khan resigned as a result of the setback, and Bhutto was elected President and the first civilian Chief Martial Law Administrator of Pakistan on December 20, 1971.

During his presidency, he lifted the state of emergency, enabling for the formation of alternative governments. His principal goal was to eradicate poverty while also reviving the economy, industry, and agriculture.

He drafted a new Constitution for the country, converting it from a presidential to a parliamentary system in which the President served solely as a figurehead and the Prime Minister was in charge of administration.

On August 14, 1973, he was sworn in as Prime Minister of Pakistan with a total of 108 votes from 146 members. During his five-year reign, he implemented numerous reforms that shifted the country’s policy from a capitalist to a socialist one.

While his 1973 constitutional revisions defined the country’s political future, his domestic reforms provided the voiceless a voice, significantly transforming the country’s economic situation in their favor.

He sought to increase workers’ rights and nationalized a number of important industries, including the banking industry. During his reign, he made groundbreaking efforts to expand education. There were a lot of schools and colleges built. He is renowned with founding the world-class Quaid-e-Azam University and Gomal University.

He instituted a number of land reforms that aided small-scale farmers. He wanted the country to be self-sufficient. He founded the Federal Flood Commission, which was charged with developing national flood protection strategies as well as flood forecasts and research in order to harness floodwater.

He became increasingly unpopular as his reign proceeded, and he was chastised for being the brains behind the assassination of opposition leader Ahmad Raza Kasuri’s father. Surprisingly, members of his own party turned against him.

Pakistan National Alliance was formed in 1977 when opposition parties banded together (PNA). Bhutto demanded new elections, and despite the fact that the PNA lost, they claimed the elections were rigged and boycotted provisional elections. They also declared the PPP-led administration to be illegitimate.

Political and societal upheaval prompted leaders of the PPP and PNA to negotiate. Despite the fact that new elections were called, Bhutto was detained by forces on General Zia-ul-order Haq’s on July 5, 1977. In Pakistan, martial law was imposed and the constitution was suspended.

Bhutto was charged with conspiring to assassinate opposition leader Ahmad Raza Kasuri’s father. Bhutto was found guilty of murder and given the death penalty.

Personal History and Legacy

In his lifetime, he married twice. Shireen Amir Begum received the first in 1943. On September 8, 1951, he divorced her and remarried Begum Nusrat Ispahani. The couple have four children together.

The trial in which he was accused with murder lasted several months. He was found guilty by the Supreme Court of the United States. Despite pleas and worldwide clemency requests, he was hanged on April 4, 1979, at Rawalpindi’s Central Jail. He was buried in a rural graveyard in Garhi Khuda Baksh.

After Pakistan’s founder, Mohammad Jinnah, and cricketer-turned-politician, Imran Khan, he has been voted as one of the country’s greatest leaders. The title Quaid-e-Awam was bestowed upon him by his admirers (Leader of the people).

Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Net Worth

Zulfikar is one of the wealthiest World Leaders and one of the most beloved. Zulfikar Ali Bhutto’s net worth is estimated to be $1.5 million, according to Wikipedia, Forbes, and Business Insider.

Trivia

Pakistan People’s Party was founded by him. From 1971 to 1973, he was President of Pakistan, and from 1973 to 1977, he was Prime Minister.
He is regarded as Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program’s “Father.”